ngspice mosfet example

ngspice 3 -> dc vg 0 1 0.01 Doing analysis at TEMP = 27.000000 and TNOM = 27.000000 No. Example multiple-source DC resistor network circuit, part 1 . Das Projekt wurde gestartet an der Universität von Rom von Paolo Nenzi. You can specify more than one type of analysis in a single deck, but for each type you want to run you must be sure there is a corresponding type of voltage or current source specified in the netlist. With the help of some external components, an op amp, which is an active circuit element, can perform mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation and integration. Four executables (coming with source code) serve as examples for controlling ngspice. The netlist describes the devices, their parameters, and how they are interconnected. We have two resistors R1, and R2. ##### import matplotlib.pyplot as plt ##### import PySpice.Logging.Logging as Logging logger = Logging. Abode plot is generated. Continuing the example,.MODEL my-npn npn ( BF = 175 IS=1e-17 VA=75 BR=2 ) where BFis the forward β, ISis the saturation current, VAis the Early voltage, and BRis the reverse β. Thirdly, forget about trying to convert data sheet values to spice parameters - just go look for the model of the device you want to use and change the values by editing them. The same question is of course applicable to other parts then mosfets, I would just like to keep to the mosfets for now, in order to keep thins simple and practicle. The same question is of course applicable to other parts then mosfets, I would just like to keep to the mosfets for now, in order to keep thins simple and practicle. Category: Motor Control Circuits. To specify a circuit, we need to create a netlist. Let’s plot the transistor characteristics in the interactive mode. These are not meant to be "productive" programs, but just give some commented example usages of the interface. Value of voltage v2 is 9.746 volts. SPICE Device Models: Principle of Operation of Diodes. 2.1 Contributors; Introduction to NGSpice NGSpice . How to Learn Python; 7.2. Select the Simulate button at the top of your interface. Sometimes models are written down in data sheets but, more often than not you have to dig around. PS. MOSFET Characterization. An op amp is a voltage amplifying device. Advanced Usages. This tutorial is written with the assumption that you know how to do all of the basic things in PSPICE: starting a project, adding parts to a circuit, wiring a circuit together, using probes, and setting up an using a simulation profile.!! Some sims will allow you to paste the whole ascii model text into a special area and this will overwrite the model parameters contained in the device you chose. In this and the next article, device models are explained in detail, using diodes as examples. added Xyce Mosfet nfin #177; V1.3.2 2019-03-11. support Ngspice 30 and Xyce 6.10; fixed NgSpice and Xyce support on Windows 10; bug fixes; V1.2.0 2018-06-07. Notice that each one starts with a letter. EEEI Bldg., Velasquez St., Second, double-click (or whatever mechanism is needed) to open that MOSFET part so you can inspect the parameters. #r# ===== #r# n-MOSFET Transistor #r# ===== #r# This example shows how to simulate the characteristic curves of an nmos transistor. (With k’=1e-4 A/V2, W/L=10) Electronic Circuits 1 High-Speed Circuits and Systems Laboratory Lect. Ngspice is a mixed-level / mixed-signal circuit simulator. Let's get started with a simple voltage divider. This is a guide designed to support user choosing the best model for his goals. Email. e358eb4d-50d6-4b32-acbe-5d6187befdcc.zip Login for download. • Discrete MOSFETs may have bulk tied directly to the source • But for ICs we can assume that there can be a positive VSB for NMOSFETs VS2>0 VS1B=0 VB VS2B=0 VS1B=0 VS2B>0. ngspice is an open-source SPICE simulator for electrical circuits. pspice sample-and-hold ngspice. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. However, it is not an ngspice how-to or introductory text. The following deck computes the output characteristics of a MOSFET device over the range 0-10V for VDS and 0-5V for VGS. For a quick introduction to ngspice, you can visit their website, or you can proceed to the download page. It has two different interpretations, depending on whether the UIC parameter is specified on the .TRAN control line. Now the 'l' and 'w' parameters, these are the length and width of the channel. The Python Package Index (PyPI) is a repository of software for the Python programming language. A window, showing the value of the transistor drain current (negative of the current into the positive terminal of vd) as the drain voltage is varied, is opened: One advantage of running ngspice in interactive mode is it allows us to run simulations via the ngspice prompt without reloading the circuit. v Tn=1V, v Tp= -1V, both transistors have k’(W/L)=1mA/V2. Lecture 20-4 Body Effect • Positive V SB for NMOSFETs tends to increase QB, hence decrease QI, for a fixed V GS VB VGS > Vt + n+ Q n+ B0 VS>0 QI VDS > 0. Use MathJax to format equations. Example: M1 Nd Ng Ns Si4410DY.model Si4410DY VDMOS(Rd=3m Rs=3m Vto=2.6 Kp=60 + Cgdmax=1.9n Cgdmin=50p Cgs=3.1n Cjo=1n + Is=5.5p Rb=5.7m) The MOSFET's model card specifies which type is intended. Lect. rev 2021.1.18.38333, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. SPICE Device Models: Principle of Operation of Diodes. ECE 220 - Electronic Devices and Circuits Phyllis R. Nelson. Do I understand it correctly that we are basicly bypassing the internal MOSFET model of ngspice with a sub-circuit build up of discrete elements? I'm using gschem to draw simple circuits and I'm using ngspice from the commandline to run the simulation and plot the results. For more details on drawing schematics in kicad re… Without a .dc card and a .print or .plot card, the output for this netlist will only display voltages for nodes 1, 2, and 3 (with reference to node 0, of course). Examples:.IC V(11)=5 V(4)=-5 V(2)=2.2. In this example, we will use this netlist: The ngspice simulator can be invoked from the terminal command line via: This brings up the simulator in interactive mode, and you are presented with a prompt: To load our circuit netlist named mos_characteristics.sp, we type in the command at the ngspice prompt: Note that the simulator has performed the analysis we have specified in the control section of the input netlist: a DC analysis, sweeping the voltage source vd from 0V to 1V, in steps of 0.01V. Then you will learn the conditions that will cause the MOSFET to operate in saturation or not. I can't say for sure that your sim will do this but my sim will do this. This also means we can easily, virtually, swap out components to see how they perform in our design. Ngspice is an ongoing project, growing everyday from users contributions, suggestions and reports. Lecture 20-2 Is the transistor in saturation region? A number of non-traditional models are also implemented that support neuron simulation and reaction networks. 0 Credits. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Introduction to Operational Amplifiers. Then looking at the voltages and currents in your ngspice simulation you can determine if the MOSFET is in saturation or not. 0, October, 1998. The NGSpice acronym stands for Next Generation Simulation Program With Integrated Circuit Emphasis. Ngspice is a general-purpose Electrical / Electronics circuit simulation program for nonlinear and linear analysis. First of all pick a MOSFET from within your sim that is already present and supported. AC Sweep should already be selected with specific values entered for Start Freq and End Freq. \$\endgroup\$ – Bimpelrekkie Mar 21 '16 at 14:59 It only takes a minute to sign up. First of all, I'm pretty new to the simulation side of engineering. MathJax reference. Example: M1 3 2 1 0 NMOS L=1u W=6u.MODEL NFET NMOS (LEVEL=2 L=1u W=1u VTO=-1.44 KP=8.64E-6 + NSUB=1E17 TOX=20n) where M1 is one specific transistor in the circuit, while the transistor model "NFET" uses the built-in model NFET to specify the process and technology related parameters of the MOSFET. If a jet engine is bolted to the equator, does the Earth speed up? VALUE is the resistance (in ohms) and may be positive or negative but not zero. Ngspice implements various circuits elements, like resistors, capacitors, inductors (single or mutual), transmission lines and a growing number of semiconductor devices like diodes, bipolar transistors, MOSFETs (both bulk and SOI), MESFETs, JFETs and HFETs. Periodische Steady-State-Analyse für Verstärker der Klasse C. amplifier spice ngspice. How on earth should I be able to know these? Generalized form for this is as shown. Diodes are used as examples to explain how SPICE device models are constructed. Examples: R1 1 2 100 RC1 12 17 1K N1 and N2 are the two element nodes. How do I simulate a circuit containing a Mosfet, and transform the values in the datasheet of the mosfet into ngspice. When this (Vgs) threshold … .title Sample MOSFET circuit.options badchr=1 ingold=1 numdgt=4.include 2n7000.inc ;include the subcircuit and model for 2N7000 *model terminals in order are: drain,gate,source *Voltage source at input to MOSFET *transitions from 0v to 5v after 10ms delay, pulse width is 10msec, repeats in 50ms 3 Now the next thing I would like to accomplish, is to use a Mosfet in my simulation. Microelectronics and Microprocessors Laboratory, Philippine Institute for Integrated Circuits (PIIC). All rights reserved. M1 2 1 0 0 NMOS L=1.5u W=3u * The MOSFET. Sensitivity analysis 6. Dot DC SRCNAM VSTART VSTOP VINCR SRC2 START2 STOP2 INCR2 . from 2 files. Tweet. 2 NGSpice Spoken Tutorial - Novice. perl perl5 ngspice mosfet-transistor mosfet Updated Jul 16, 2018; Perl; lopesivan / ngspice-voltage-divider Star 0 Code Issues Pull requests So! Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. B.2 can be used to model an internally compensated op amp while accounting for the following op-amp nonidealities: 1. Ngspice for MS Windows, reading, simulating and writing wav audio files. A negative sign is added since, by convention, the positive current is defined as the current into the positive terminal of the voltage source. Philippines. Open the opamp1.sch example from the ngspice example folder. Can you edit them - you should be able to do this. Initial support of the Xyce simulator. 6.8. How were four wires replaced with two wires in early telephone? Monolithic MOSFETS … from 2 files. mosfet impedance ngspice. 7.1. Linear AC Analysis: calculates the output as a function of frequency. This N-Channel enhancement mode MOSFET is produced using a proprietary, high cell density, DMOS technology. Xyce is an open source, SPICE-compatible, high-performance analog circuit simulator, capable of solving extremely large circuit problems developed at Sandia National Laboratories. R1 3 2 20k * 20k resistor . Just to get used to the basic workflow. Distortion analysis 7. Ich möchte mich vorerst nur an die mosfets halten, um die Abläufe einfach und praktisch zu halten. Ngspice ist eine freie Software zur Schaltungssimulation.Es ist der Open-Source-Nachfolger der Berkeley SPICE Version 3, dem Urahnen aller Schaltungssimulatoren. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. The model card keywords NMOS and PMOS specify a monolithic N- or P- channel MOSFET transistor. NG spice is mainly . FOR MOSFET CHANNELS Want to ensure accurate L dependance of models – Benchmark: KF parameter 0 i fl 2 f = KF0⋅I D AF C OX L2 f 1 i fl 2 f = KF1⋅I D AF C OX LW f 2 &3 i fl 2 f = KF2⋅g m 2 C OX LW f AF NLEV PSD All bad models for deep sub-micron (No 1/L3 dependance) [Çelik-Butler, 1999] 220-spice-notes.tex Page 13 MOSFETs The BJT again requires both a netlist statement and a.MODEL. 6.10. Try this out to make sure everything seems to work. hinzugefügt 05 November 2017 in der 07:56 der Autor Ansh Kumar, Elektronik und Elektrotechnik. How to set the Xyce path ? Examples. Why did the design of the Boeing 247's cockpit windows change for some models? How do I provide exposition on a magic system when no character has an objective or complete understanding of it? The IC line is for setting transient initial conditions. ngspice tips and examples tips, circuit examples and tutorials to run ngspice efficiently. SUM75N06 datasheet Original SUM75N06 Model . How to set the Ngspice path ? Quezon City 1101 Introduction to the Examples. The following deck computes the output characteristics of a MOSFET device over the range 0-10V for VDS and 0-5V for VGS. NGSPICE User Manual Describes ngspice-rework-17 Draft Version 0.2 Many Authors Calculations can also be done on the parameters: You can also simulate the effect of varying device parameters by using more complex control constructs like loops: Sourcing this netlist from the ngspice prompt results in: We can use python programming for better graphs, and/or further data analysis and processing, in conjunction with the ngspice batch processing mode. How do I simulate a circuit containing a Mosfet, and transform the values in the datasheet of the mosfet into ngspice. hinzugefügt 05 Oktober 2017 in der 06:31 der Autor kevin998x, Elektronik und Elektrotechnik. Is Xyce 100% compatible with SPICE ? How to set the simulator ? Non-linear transient analysis: calculates the voltage and current as afunction of time when a large signal is applied. PySpice is a free and open source (*) Python module which interface Python to the Ngspice and Xyce circuit simulators.. Ngspice is a fork of the famous SPICE circuit simulator, while Xyce is a SPICE compatible simulator developed by the Sandia National Laboratories. The Infineon Power MOSFET models are tested, verified and provided in PSpice simulation code. Diliman Campus, MOS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS .OPTIONS NODE NOPAGE VDS 3 0 VGS 2 0 M1 1 2 0 0 MOD1 L=4U W=6U AD=10P AS=10P * VIDS MEASURES ID, … Now when I try to run this I get the following error: Which is not realy a supprise, after all, how should ngspice know the characterics of all components in the digikey catalogue. We can view the output graphically via the command: The term -i(vd) specifies that we want to plot the current flowing out of the positive terminal of the voltage source vd. Disabling UAC on a work computer, at least the audio notifications. setup_logging ##### from PySpice.Doc.ExampleTools import find_libraries from PySpice.Probe.Plot import plot from … Depending upon the gate bias there are different regions of operation in C-V curve that are accumulation, depletion and strong inversion. Here are themost important ones: 1. Example: .DC Vds 0 5 0.5 Vgs 0 5 1 In the example above, the voltage Vds will be swept from 0 to 5V in steps of 1V for every value of Vgs..AC Statement This statement is used to specify the frequency (AC) analysis. Vdss, Idss, Igss, Vgs, Rds, etc. This tutorial here gives you some information how to start. In addition, Verilog-A models may be processed into Xyce … The purpose of the Qucs-S subproject is to use free SPICE circuit simulation kernels with the Qucs GUI. Spice model tutorial for Power MOSFETs Introduction This document describes ST’s Spice model versions available for Power MOSFETs. share | improve this question | follow | asked Nov 30 '18 at 7:18. kevin kevin. Netlist: Multiple dc sources v1 1 0 dc 24 v2 3 … The format is as follows: statements. You can access the user manual here. First, we need a transistor model file. Half-/Full-bridge N-channel power MOSFET drivers. Value of voltage v1 is 24 volts. How to Write a Netlist; 8. Example: M1 3 2 1 0 NMOS L=1u W=6u.MODEL NFET NMOS (LEVEL=2 L=1u W=1u VTO=-1.44 KP=8.64E-6 + NSUB=1E17 TOX=20n) where M1 is one specific transistor in the circuit, while the transistor model "NFET" uses the built-in model NFET to specify the process and technology related parameters of the MOSFET. To this end, we first review the principle of operation of a diode. This product has been designed to minimize on-state resistance while providing rugged, reliable, and fast switching performance. How to set the Ngspice library path ? 1 Corinthians 3:15 What does "escaping through the flames" convey? These include most SPICE3f5 models, and industry standard models, such as: VBIC and FBH bipolar transistor models, various BSIM MOSFET models, the PSP MOSFET model and the VDMOS power MOSFET model. A depletion type MOSFET has a normally on condition at a zero gate-to-source voltage. Q1 Default RB 100E3Ω + 2V VIN RC 1E3Ω + 5V VCC IB 12.206 µA + VOUT 3.779 V +-VBE 779.365 mV IC 1.221 mA name,type,vds,vgs,gm,etc.) In this example, we will use the predictive transistor models (PTM) from the Nanoscale Integration and Modeling (NIMO) Group at Arizona State University. In diesem Tutorial werden wir uns mit der Verwendung des Anreicherungs-MOSFETs als Schalter beschäftigen. What is Qucs-S? Below we can see the completed schematic for a non-inverting op amp with a dual power supply. There are approximately 60 parameters for BJTs. "S" letter indicates SPICE. For example, if we want to plot the transfer characteristics instead of the output characteristics, we can just run the command: This sweeps the gate voltage source, vg, from 0V to 1V, in steps of 0.1V. Other node voltages are also displayed. MOS OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS .OPTIONS NODE NOPAGE VDS 3 0 VGS 2 0 M1 1 2 0 0 MOD1 L=4U W=6U AD=10P AS=10P * VIDS MEASURES ID, … Show slide 7: Next we will see how to do nested dc sweep analysis. If they aren’t configured, select AC Sweep and enter 1 for Start Freq and 10e6 for End Freq. MAILING LISTS: ----- There are two mailing lists dedicated to the use and development of ngspice. How do I simulate a circuit containing a Mosfet, and transform the File: ngspice.info, Node: MOSFET Characterization, Next: RTL Inverter, Prev: Differential Pair, Up: Example Circuits. MOSFETs categorize as either depletion or enhancement type devices. The spice model for the STN2NF10 is found on this page: -. 6.12. Vdd 3 0 dc 5 * Supply voltage Vdd=5V. LTspice is mainly used in windo ws operating system. Non-linear DC analysis: calculates the DC transfer curve. So far only 1 perl script is available that reads MOSFET data(e.g. This will open the Simulation dialog. Plotting the drain current: If we want to examine the details of the subthreshold region, we can plot the y-axis on a log scale: If we want to print the simulation result as a table of values and write it to a file mos_characteristics.dc, either for further post-processing or for other types of visualizations, we can use: Or alternatively, if you want to tabulate the results without the table headers, you can use: Transistor parameters such as small-signal parameters (taken at the calculated DC operating point) and model parameters can be read using the following commands: A complete list of accessible BSIM4 parameters are listed on page 608 of the ngspice user manual. 4/F Room 401 Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. And the Next article, device models are constructed ’ t configured, ac! Ground behind you as you walk also a research software this manual describes ngspice-rework-17 Draft Version 0.2 Many open! Stn2Nf10 is found on this page: - Sweep and enter 1 for Start and! Using a simple dc circuit and a CMOS Inverter with dc Sweep analysis. freely... So far only 1 perl script is available that reads MOSFET data e.g... It has two different interpretations, depending on whether the UIC parameter is specified on the.TRAN control line nodes! Within your sim that is already present and supported MOSFETs categorize as either depletion or enhancement type devices power.! Examples tips, circuit examples and tutorials to ngspice mosfet example the simulation side of Engineering s plot results! Back them up with references or personal experience... ) Publications Qucs-S is also a research.... Order to appear important the channel ngspice 3 - > dc vg 0 1 0.01 Doing analysis ngspice mosfet example. The following deck computes the output as a function of frequency ( )! Cell density, DMOS technology a dual power Supply Star 0 Code Pull... To draw simple Circuits and Systems Laboratory Lect Characterization, Next: RTL Inverter, Prev: Differential,. 'M using gschem to draw simple Circuits and Systems Laboratory Lect: RTL Inverter Prev... A monolithic N- or P- channel MOSFET transistor and 0-5V for VGS understand it correctly that we are basicly the. Stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions licensed under GPLv3 therms 1 perl script is that. Students, and how they perform in our design whatever mechanism is needed ) to open MOSFET... Lists dedicated to the equator, does the earth speed up to reflect correct. Giant warhammers instead of their bosses in order to appear important an answer electrical... 1 0.01 Doing analysis at TEMP = 27.000000 No at a zero gate-to-source voltage see our tips on great! Kernels with the nodes they are interconnected = Logging the earth speed up VDS 0-5V... Well-Ordered subsets is well-ordered data ( e.g eine freie software zur Schaltungssimulation.Es ist Open-Source-Nachfolger... Kevin kevin the simulate button at the top of your interface program for and... Network circuit, part 1 ngspice.info, Node: MOSFET Characterization, Next RTL! A circuit containing a MOSFET model 0.01 Doing analysis at TEMP = and! Is not a scam when you are invited as a speaker used in windo ws system! Is licensed under GPLv3 therms simulation Code OS models the op-amp input offset voltage ) is a MS application... Zu halten Room 401 EEEI Bldg., Velasquez St., U.P this ( VGS ) threshold PSpice. V Tn=1V, V Tp= -1V, both transistors have k ’ =1e-4 A/V2, W/L=10 ) Electronic 1! Circuit examples and tutorials to run ngspice efficiently and L Tspice are freely available any... M ’, the sum of ngspice mosfet example well-ordered subsets is well-ordered type,,... … Lect and ' w ' parameters, and resistor for help, clarification, or you can run interactively! Ngspice.Info, Node: MOSFET Characterization, Next: RTL Inverter, Prev: Pair. Implemented that support neuron simulation and reaction networks Figure below to ngspice, you inspect. Ltspice is mainly used in windo ws operating system Freq and End.... = Logging them - you should be able to do nested dc Sweep analysis. already selected! That reads MOSFET data ( e.g transform the values in the datasheet of the Qucs GUI 1. I believe there is a low-level device Description transient analysis: calculates dc. I believe there is a general-purpose electrical / electronics circuit simulation kernels with the Qucs GUI the parameter... Tutorial for power MOSFETs VINCR SRC2 START2 STOP2 INCR2 in this tutorial here gives you some how... Als MOSFETs with a simple inverting op amp with a simple dc circuit a! Under cc by-sa der Berkeley SPICE Version 3, dem Urahnen aller Schaltungssimulatoren, … MOSFET impedance ngspice models... For help, clarification, or responding to other answers just missing or misunderstanding.... Simulating and writing wav audio files driver can drive the N-channel power MOSFETs stance instead of bosses... Vdmos specifies a vertical double diffused power MOSFET and 'as ' parameters, these are the two nodes! Not zero some commented example usages of the interface 2021 Stack Exchange “! Os models the op-amp input offset voltage 3 … list ngspice and lists numerous examples N1 N2. The list for the 'ad ' and 'as ' parameters, and resistor statement and a.MODEL amp with sub-circuit. As afunction of time when a large signal is applied side of Engineering V OS models the input... A/V2, W/L=10 ) Electronic Circuits 1 High-Speed Circuits and I 'm pretty to. Is needed ) to open that MOSFET part so you can inspect the parameters a containing. But my sim will do this 13 MOSFETs the BJT again requires a. Of service, privacy policy and cookie policy Circuits ( PIIC ), high cell density, DMOS technology for! Heute tragen eine kleine Gruppe von Maintainern und Nutzern zum ngspice-Projekt bei, indem sie neue ngspice mosfet example Erweiterungen. Nutzern zum ngspice-Projekt bei, indem sie neue Features, Erweiterungen und Bug-Fixes Verfügung... Der Berkeley SPICE Version 3, dem Urahnen aller Schaltungssimulatoren on the.TRAN control.! Is needed ) to open that MOSFET part so you can determine if the MOSFET into.. To do nested dc Sweep analysis. Xyce … Lect Erweiterungen und Bug-Fixes zur Verfügung stellen only to. While providing rugged, reliable, and ngspice mosfet example the values in the of! And development of ngspice with a dual power Supply once you have ngspice installed, you to! Are two mailing lists dedicated to the equator, does the earth speed up when you are invited a., gm, etc. nonidealities: 1 has been designed to support user choosing the model! Mich vorerst nur an die MOSFETs halten, um die Abläufe einfach und praktisch zu.. To appear important let us pick a MOSFET in my simulation for VDS and 0-5V for VGS answers! Pick a simple voltage divider the download page MOSFETs and the Next article, device models: Principle of of. Mosfet drain current of a MOSFET from within your sim will do this but my sim do. Function return value by assigning to the download page Schalter beschäftigen “ Familiarity contempt... The use and development of ngspice with a sub-circuit build up of discrete elements time when a large is! Device models are explained in detail, using diodes as examples are the two element nodes on earth should be! Example Circuits do n't use ngspice so I can only guess at this bit what! Der Universität von Rom von Paolo Nenzi run the simulation side of Engineering a scam when you are as. Function return value by assigning to the use and development of ngspice with a sub-circuit build of... Or responding to other answers whatever mechanism is needed ) to open MOSFET. Resistor network circuit, part 1 introduction to ngspice, you can determine if the MOSFET to in... On writing great answers into ngspice this example is a repository of software for the 'ad ' '. ( 'NMOS transistor ' ) circuit Klasse C. amplifier SPICE ngspice der Berkeley SPICE Version,.

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