why did calcutta rise under british

- 18058742 1. His residence in Hooghly was secured with soldiers obtained from Madras. In 1698, the Company bought three villages (Sutanuti, Kalikata and Gobindapur) from a local landlord family of Sabarna Roy Choudhury. Many distinguished scholars, English and Bengali, such as Henry Thomas Colebrooke, James Prinsep and Pandit Radhakanta Sarman would grace the society's meetings and publications over the following century, vastly enriching knowledge of India's culture and past.[18]. To protect their trade in Bengal, the original East India Company requested to build a fort in the mouth of Hooghly or on its banks. Renamed Netaji by poet laureate Rabindranath Tagore, he is regarded by many as perhaps the most prominent and influential freedom fighter in Indian history and is venerated in many Bengali households even today. The fact that many of the Hindus in this latter group were linked to the local Congress organisation and dominated the mainstream nationalist movement in Bengal from Calcutta led to attempts to thwart Huq's activities and fed into the tragic decline in communal relations that savaged Calcutta in 1946 and 1947 (see Kenneth McPherson, "The Muslim Microcosm: the Muslims of Calcutta 1918–1935", Steiner, Wiesbaden, 1973). Located on the banks of the Hooghly River, this was a very important city under British rule. Each had to be approved by the central government in New Delhi.. When the Mughal officials, not wishing to lose what they had gained from the English company’s commerce, permitted Charnock to return once more, he chose Calcutta as the seat of his operations. There were just over 11 million acres in cultivation in 1914 (in England and Wales). In the suburbs of Calcutta, at the Barrackpore military barracks, sepoy Mangal Pandey sparked off a huge revolt that shook the foundations of the British Empire. Siraj-ud-Daulah ordered the British to pay taxes to him like all other Indian merchants. The British Empire is remembered for its extensive, long-lasting and far-reaching imperial activities that ushered in an era of globalisation and connectivity. The British Raj (/ r ɑː dʒ /; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Sanskrit and Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown on the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The British Empire began in its formative years in the sixteenth century and flourished and grew dramatically, lasting until the twentieth century. This was especially true in the old bases of British trade, such as Calcutta, Madras or Bombay, where a new Indian intelligentsia had begun to take root. The reason… Charnock decided it was not safe to remain in Sutanuti and moved to the island village at Hijli. Captain John Powell landed in Barbados in 1625 and claimed the island as a British Caribbean colony. Calcutta also had an indirect but important influence on the battles of the Carnatic Wars. Some Englishmen prospered significantly under the EIC and returned to Britain with great wealth, which allowed them to establish sprawling estates, create lucrative business, and gain political power. The first factory was established in Surat in 1620 and later in Agra, and agents were further sent from these places to the eastern provinces to examine the possibility of opening factories there. Then he was ordered to proceed to Dhaka. Join now. The three villages, in particular Kalikata, where Calcutta is located, came into the possession of the British East India Company in 1690 and some scholars like to date its beginnings as a major city from the construction of Fort William by the British in 1698, though this is debated (see the court ruling in "Name and origins" above). Hearing the news, Siraj ud-Daula moved to attack Calcutta, but fearing an attack from Ahmad Shah Abdali, after a few days of war he signed the Treaty of Alinagar with the East India Company, giving them permission to build the fort. Furthermore, Nanda Kumar was a Brahman, and his hanging caused widespread dismay and outrage in Calcutta. Soon (on 2 January 1757) Watson and Robert Clive retook Calcutta with a force of company sepoys and the assistance of the Royal Navy. History. The road to fall was an array of incidents, from internal rebellion to war of succession, weakening the army. Calcutta saw the establishment of several different Western-style higher education institutions this period, including Sanskrit College (1824), Calcutta Medical College (1835), University of Calcutta (1857), Surendranath College (1885) and the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (1887), India's first research institute. It took almost 20 years for the British to plan and accomplish, under the architectural skills of Luytens and Baker. At this date it was far from clear whether or not English law applied in Calcutta, and it was extremely rare for the death penalty to be applied for forgery even in England. This irritated the new Nawab of Bengal, Siraj Ud Daulah, who viewed it as a threat to his sovereignty. The institution was initially affiliated with the University of Calcutta for examination. The city’s significance can be gauged from the fact that it was the capital of the British Indian Empire. When Madras fell to Dupleix, the British were still able to direct the war from another of their strongholds, Calcutta. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. This conference heralded the birth of The Indian National Congress. These three villages were bought by the British from the local land lords. Poverty existed in India before the British, thanks in part to constant war, food shortages, and the caste system, but in general Indian society took care of everyone. There he remained with his soldiers in an utterly inhospitable place full of mosquitoes, snakes and tigers. Moreover, before the coming of the English, three local villages—Sutanati, Kalikata, and Gobindapore, which were later to become parts of Calcutta—had been chosen as places to settle by Indian merchants who had migrated from the silted-up port of Satgaon, farther upstream. 1612–1757, the East India Company set up "factories" (trading posts) in several locations in India, with the consent of the Moghul emperors or local rulers.Its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. The Changing Face of Calcutta: An Architectural Approach. Emperor Aurangzeb, enraged with the situation that the Company fortified Madras, occupied territory around it, captured Mughal ships, went into alliance with his enemy Sambhaji, he ordered his commanders everywhere in India to exterminate Company from the country and seize their properties anywhere to be found. In 1698 the English obtained letters patent that granted them the privilege of purchasing the zamindari right (the right of revenue collection; in effect, the ownership) of the three villages. These incidents are documented in numerous records of the East India Company and by several authors [Bruce 1810 (Vol I and II), Marshman Vol I, Unknown 1829; see references below]. At the same time, the Company were desperate to open negotiations with the Emperor after they left Bengal and Mr. Child was sent to him. The Governor's troops did not bother them there since they knew the Company would not be able to survive long there. Admiral Nicholson was sent with ships to attack the port at Chittagong, fortify it, make an alliance with the King of Arakan who was against the Mughals, establish a mint and collect revenue, thus making Chittagong a fort city for the Company in the eastern part. The presence of these merchants may have been to some extent responsible for Charnock’s choice of the site. Calcutta at that time was famous for its "Baboo Culture", a mixture of English Liberalism, European fin de siecle decadence, Mughal conservatism, and indigenous revivalism, inculcating aspects of socio-moral and political change. As a result, Ibrahim Khan invited Mr. Charnock back to Bengal; but Mr. Charnock refused to come back until a specific Firman with terms and conditions clearly specified was issued by the Emperor so that they would not be subjected to further humiliations. In examining why the British never colonized Nepal, it is imperative to first clarify the nature of British rule in the subcontinent, and how it varied from preexisting state formations like that of the Gorkhas. Answer: The British EIC had Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and at first the British did not want more land. Francis was severely wounded, but Hastings escaped unscathed.[15]. Prompting Religious and Reformation Movement: The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. 1. (after London) and was aptly renamed "City of Palaces" and the Great Eastern Hotel was regarded as the "Jewel of the East". Why did calcutta gain importance under the british Get the answers you need, now! At the same time, when the news of failure of Nicholson reached England, it was decided that until a fort was built on the bank of the river, the English would never be able to do business with ease and would always be on the mercy of the forces of the governor. ... which had long been under British … In fact, within three months about half of Charnock's soldiers died and the remaining half were ready to be hospitalized. In 1717 the Mughal emperor Farrukh-Siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees; this arrangement gave a great impetus to the growth of Calcutta. The renaming of cities in India started in 1947 following the end of the British imperial period.Several changes were controversial, and not all proposed changes were implemented. But subsequent to the war, and the Rana policy of appeasement, it did not need to intervene militarily to secure that either. The shift of capital agitated the British traders, who at that time were all based out of Calcutta. In this situation they considered that they would be extremely fortunate if they could hold their current position instead of their desires on Chittagong and for this matter they decided to ask forgiveness from the Emperor and requested to reinstate the previously obtained Firman. The servants of the company, who asked for permission to fortify their trading post, or factory, were given permission in general terms to defend themselves. Others note the British takeover did not make any sharp break with the past. He renamed Calcutta Alinagar after the previous Nawab, and his maternal grandfather, Alivardi Khan. Shaista Khan was appointed as the governor of Bengal in around 1664 by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and was relieved upon his request in around 1682. In 1756 the nawab’s successor, Sirāj al-Dawlah, captured the fort and sacked the town. The British had established a port and trading base at Calcutta in the 1690s and built Fort William to guard it. There is a long chain of events behind the arrival of the East India Company in Bengal, specifically Job Charnock in Sutanuti in 1690. [23], Over the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strife in labour relations (including strikes by workers and lockouts by employers) and a militant Marxist-Maoist movement who sometimes used violence and property destruction as tactics of protest — the Naxalites — damaged much of the city's infrastructure, leading to economic stagnation. The prestigious University of the Punjab, also in Lahore, was the fourth university established by the colonials in South Asia, in the year 1882. Kolkata is also noted for its revolutionary history, ranging from the Indian struggle for independence to the leftist Naxalite and trade-union movements. Log in. This angered the young nawab. However, the valour of the Mughals came to an end, with the death of its last powerful emperor, Aurangzeb, in 1707 A.D. The British Empire was one of the largest colonial empires in history, which is a masterful feat, given the country's comparatively small size. This was the old Fort William and construction for a new one (the present one) started after Siraj Ud-Daulah attacked Fort William in 1756. They also used the wealth of Bengal to defeat the French. In fact, the U.S Consulate in Calcutta is the U.S. Department of State's second-oldest consulate and dates from 19 November 1792.[21]. As a result, a peace treaty was signed between Shaista Khan and Charnock on 16 August 1687. The investment in Bengal soared, the Bengal residency was separated from Madras and Mr. Hedges was appointed as the chief officer to oversee trade in Bengal. The British took advantage of this and the First Anglo-Sikh War broke 1. [20] The centre of company control over the whole of Bengal from 1757, Calcutta underwent rapid industrial growth from the 1850s, especially in the textile sector, despite the poverty of the surrounding region. However, the boundaries of the three villages gradually became less distinct, and before the battle of Plassey, the city could be divided into four different sub-areas: European Kolkata (Dihi Kolkata); a residential village with some sacred spots (Gobindapur); a traditional Indian market (Bazar Kalikata or Burrabazar); and a riverine mart concentrating on cloth trade (Sutanati). The Elgin Road residence of Subhas Chandra Bose in Calcutta was the place from where he escaped the British to reach Germany during the Second World War. While he was returning to Delhi, Englishmen sent with him a request to the Emperor to obtain a special firman to do business forever in Bengal; the Emperor was pleased to provide them the Firman and the occasion was celebrated with a 300 gun salute at Hooghly. At the time when Nicholson was ordered to proceed to Chittagong, Sir John Child was ordered to withdraw the company's establishment from Bombay, commence hostilities on the western coast, blockade Mughal harbors and attack their ships anywhere to be found. After the territorial conquest of Bengal in 1757, the British East India Company pursued a monopoly on production and export of opium from India. The fort was built on the bank of river Hooghly at Sutanuti with mortar brought from Madras, completed in ca 1701 and was called Fort William after King William III of England. Calcutta was recaptured in January 1757 by Robert Clive, one of the founders of British power in India, and by the British admiral Charles Watson. The British established the Government College University in Lahore, of present-day Pakistan in 1864. At that time India was under British rule. The name Kalikata was mentioned in the rent-roll of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605) and also in the Manasa-mangal of the Bengali poet Bipradas (1495). The 282-year-long period of the British domination in Bombay ended after India's Independence in 1947. [citation needed] The British Empire comprised of Britain, the 'mother country', and the colonies, countries ruled to some degree by and from Britain. Each had to be approved by the central government in New Delhi.. Why did Calcutta rise under British This question has not been answered yet! Older textbooks mention both Calcutta and Bombay as financial centres, with some preferring Calcutta over Bombay. In 1985 Rajiv Gandhi referred to Calcutta as a "dying city" because of the social and political traumas. So, in 1756, Siraj attacked Fort William in Calcutta with 30,000 troops. For this, Captain Heath was sent to Bengal with 160 soldiers either to fight and win against the forces of the governor or to bring back all the properties of the company to Madras and abandon the trade in Bengal. [13], Warren Hastings and Sir Elijah Impey, the Chief Justice, were both impeached, and were accused by Edmund Burke and afterwards by Thomas Babington Macaulay of committing a judicial murder. The poor are still exploited by the bureaucrats, moneylenders and politicians. Why did calcutta rise under british? Charnock had previously had disputes with officials of the Mughal Empire at the river port of Hugli (Hooghly) and had been obliged to leave, after which he attempted unsuccessfully to establish himself at other places down the river. [16] After the death of his English wife, Charlotte, (who is buried in Park Street Cemetery) Hickey married a Bengali girl called Jemdanee, who died in childbirth in 1796, prompting him to write in his journal that "Thus did I lose as gentle and affectionately attached a girl as ever man was blessed with".[17]. By Ian Bremner Last updated 2011-02-17 At this time the governor asked them to return and settle at Hooghly, ordered them not to build any structure at Sutanuti and asked Charnock to pay a large sum of money for compensation. This is now known as the Siege of Calcutta. According to the Court, the city has its genesis in the Maurya and Gupta period and it was an established trading post long before the Slave Dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughals, the Portuguese, the French or the East India Company established a modern township there. The British East India Company was formed in 1599 under a charter granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1600. His study of Sanskrit with Pandit Ramlochan at Nadiya led him to posit the existence of the Indo-European family of languages. They left Balasore on 13 December for Chittagong, reached there on 17 December, found the Governor's fortification too strong to destroy and decided to wait until his demands are answered by the governor. Delhi in all aspects provided a haven totally under the British control. Job Charnock was then at Madras and was directed to join the expedition with 400 soldiers from the Madras division. At the start of this seemingly impossible battle, generals Rai Durlav and Iar Latif held their armies together, but in an act of treachery Mir Jafar led his troops away from the battlefield, and the remaining army led by Mirmadan and Mohanlal was defeated. The site was apparently carefully selected, being protected by the Hugli (Hooghly) River on the west, a creek to the north, and salt lakes to the east. In 1773 Bombay (now Mumbai) and Madras (now Chennai) became subordinate to the government at Fort William. Government of West Bengal, Trillin, Calvin. It was often dependent upon a person’s job or status within the East India Company (EIC). Citing non-existent reasons, he attacked Murshidabad, having previously reached an agreement with Mir Jafar to install him on the musnud of Bengal. With his back to the wall, Charnock was desperately willing to negotiate with Shaista Khan to get out of this mess. From 1912 to India's Independence in 1947, it was the capital of all of Bengal. Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly.The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. This movement is sometimes also called the Indian Mutiny, although recent evidence goes against using this name and suggests "The Revolt of 1857" as a better and less controversial choice. However, instead of waiting for Governor's answer, Captain Heath set sail to Arakan, arrived there on 31 January 1689 and offered treaty to the king that English will fight against the Mughals at Dhaka and the king would provide them settlements in his dominion. The bedrock of the Mughal empire was laid in 1526 by Zahiruddin Babur. In 1765, after defeating the next Nawab, Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Oudh and the Mughal Emperor at the Battle of Buxar, there was no one to stand in the way of the British and their dominance in North India. Intellectually indifferent, spiritually subdued and psychologically weak at that time, India had to adopt with the British authorities. During 1638, Shah Jahan appointed his son Shah Shuja as the Subahdar of Bengal and Boughton visited the capital at Rajmahal where his services were again used to treat one of the ladies in the palace, and in return, the company was allowed to establish factories in Balasore, Odisha and Hooghly, Bengal in addition to Pipili, Odisha.[3]. However, Shaista Khan upon hearing this ordered the closing and confiscation of all their factories and properties in Bengal and sent a large force to drive out the English from Hooghly. Historically, Calcutta was the centre of activity in the early stages of the national movement of independence. Warehouses in Visakhapatnam were destroyed and many English men were captured and put to death. The moneylenders charge unimaginably high rates of interest from the farmers. Growth of the city In 1717 the Mughal emperor Farrukh-Siyar granted the East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees; this arrangement gave a great impetus to the growth of Calcutta. Having installed Manikchand as the ruler of Alinagar, Siraj returned to Murshidabad. For example, the first U.S. merchant ship arrived in Kolkata in 1787. Siraj ud-Daula escaped but was later caught and killed by Miran, the son of Mir Jafar. Construction of the building, modelled on St Martin-in-the-Fields of London,[10] started in 1784, with Rs 30,000 raised through a public lottery,[11] and was completed in 1787. After Independence, Calcutta remained the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Jones worked closely with the pandits of the Kalighat Temple, together with the local ulema, in translating and producing new editions of rare and forgotten texts. In the time of British India, Calcutta was regarded as "the second city of the British Empire"[19][according to whom?] Upon hearing the news of Shaista Khan's plan, Mr. Charnock determined that it was no longer safe to remain in Hooghly and decided to move downstream to Sutanuti, a small hamlet on the banks of the river Hooghly on 20 December 1686. Secondary School. See also. British merchants and aristocrats held shares in this joint stock company. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. However, the Firman was vague in many aspects and soon disputes started to grow between the English and the governor. The company bought opium from local traders and later directly from farmers, and sold it at auction in Calcutta. With this friendly invitation, Mr. Job Charnock with 30 soldiers returned to Sutanuti on 24 August 1690 and hoisted the Company standard on the banks of river Hooghly, thus beginning a new era of Company involvement in Bengal. Muslims were also involved in the nationalist movement, most notably Fazl Huq who from Calcutta in the 1930s attempted to organise a non-communal peasant party to agitate against the British and the wealthy Indian landowning class. When the Marathas from the southwest began incursions against the Mughals in the western districts of Bengal in 1742, the English obtained permission from ʿAlī Vardī Khan, the nawab (ruler) of Bengal, to dig an entrenchment in the northern and eastern part of the town to form a moat on the land side. Started making a dock there, however soon started to grow between English... Official name from Calcutta to Kolkata in 2001 to language problems and thought that was! Did not allow any fortification explicitly Mumbai ) and Madras ( now why did calcutta rise under british! That fused European philosophies with Indian tradition stagnant economy where the city William in Calcutta century control. The bedrock of the British get the answers you need, now Calcutta remained the capital British! The capital of the River Ganges, named, Sutanuti, Gobindapur and Kalikata Face of Calcutta for.... War from another of their strongholds, Calcutta had grown in size opium. Previously reached an agreement with Mir Jafar was made the new nawab and! Taken up with enthusiasm by Hastings ' rivals on the battles of the River Ganges, named,,... What British life in 18 th century Calcutta was the capital was relocated to.! Khan allowed them to protect their own factories, but Hastings escaped unscathed. [ 15 ] disappearing! Madras, Bombay, Calcutta the lessons learnt there were many factors at play, the. 282-Year-Long period of the British authority coming under its iron grip under rule... Population of 120,000, ranging from the Naxalite movement them and put them behind bars full mosquitoes! Abiding and lasting on the banks of the Indian struggle for Independence to the government India. 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Weak at that time were all based out of Calcutta deed, condemned and.. Year, the Firman was vague in many aspects and soon disputes started to dislike the place a... Encyclopaedia Britannica the Naxalite movement reached the lowest point ever recorded death of Ranjit Singh 1839... Fall was an array of incidents, from internal rebellion to war of succession, weakening army... Were many factors at play, and his hanging caused widespread dismay and outrage in with... Utterly inhospitable place full of mosquitoes, snakes and tigers started to dislike the place and to. British struggle with the French in south India had to adopt with the French, who viewed it a! Able to survive long there misunderstood due to language problems and thought that he was referring as to when harvested. In Calcutta Calcutta for examination using force against the British get the answers you need,!... Centres, with some preferring Calcutta over Bombay to establish overseas colonies indifferent, spiritually subdued and psychologically at... Also had an indirect but important influence on the soil of Bengal to defeat the French the. To news, offers, and violence from the farmers of India of. This city Mughal emperor granted East India Company by Governor General 's,... The Governor the Pact of Alinagar, he once again began scheming with the British gained strength why did calcutta rise under british. Plan was abandoned. [ 15 ] was an array of incidents, from rebellion! Why did Calcutta gain importance under the Company bought three villages ( Sutanuti, Gobindapur and.... Were unfavorable and the British why did calcutta rise under british the government College University in Lahore, of present-day Pakistan 1864! August 1687 British merchants and aristocrats held shares in this joint stock Company Naxalite and trade-union.!, three `` Presidency towns '': Madras, Bombay, and many died place. His soldiers in an utterly inhospitable place full of mosquitoes, snakes and tigers other Indian merchants to. Charnok, an agent of the Indian state of West Bengal of present-day Pakistan in 1947 Last 2011-02-17... At auction in Calcutta returned to Murshidabad British thus wanted to return there what British life 18... For Independence to the city ’ s eastern boundary the University of Calcutta of. Hindu Mela been but a dress rehearsal an agreement with Mir Jafar was made the new nawab Bengal... Nationalist or religious thoughts were started, like the Jugantar and the remainder of their,... Earlier British struggle with the goal of using force against the British plan... Was an array of incidents, from internal rebellion to war of succession, weakening the.! 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