The biggest single cause of casualties in World War I was actually artillery, but combined with wire entanglements, machine guns earned a fearsome reputation. Manual-operated volley guns usually had to be reloaded manually all at once (each barrel reloaded by hand, or with a set of cartridges affixed to a plate that was inserted into the weapon). In 1831 a machine capable of firing 500 rifle shots a minute was devised by a French mechanic by the name of Hamel. The gun could be fired by percussion or electricity, according to the author. Part of the patent also refers to a steam-operated piston to be used with firearms but the bulk of the patent is spent detailing the former system. Submachine gun definition is - a portable automatic firearm that uses pistol-type ammunition and is fired from the shoulder or hip. First World War combat experience demonstrated the military importance of the machine gun. Search machine-gun and thousands of other words in English Cobuild dictionary from Reverso. How to use machine-gun in a sentence. The medium machine gun, or general-purpose machine gun, is belt-fed, mounted on a bipod or tripod, and fires full-power rifle ammunition. Find more ways to say machine-gun, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Machine guns are used against infantry, low-flying aircraft, small boats and lightly/unarmored land vehicles, and can provide suppressive fire (either directly or indirectly) or enforce area denial over a sector of land with grazing fire. Meaning of machine gun. historically held that the original, crank-operated Gatling Gun, and replicas thereof, are not automatic firearms or machineguns as defined.  The Gatling gun was used most successfully to expand European colonial empires, since against poorly equipped indigenous armies it did not face such threats. Raw materials. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? The first is a bipod – often these are integrated with the weapon. (Firearms, Gunnery, Ordnance & Artillery) ( tr) to shoot or fire at with a machine-gun. Modern machine guns are commonly mounted in one of four ways. The machine guns can be banned outright based on function (because they are machine guns) or they can be banned/partially-banned based on features. machine + gun. The higher the rate of fire, the more often barrels must be changed and allowed to cool. II. Also called complex machine. Sub-machine gun definition: A sub-machine gun is a light portable type of machine gun. The United States Army issued four machine guns per regiment in 1912, but that allowance increased to 336 machine guns per regiment by 1919.. The earliest, and simplest, application of this idea is the cannon. ( as modifier ): machine-gun fire. Machine gun. In a worst-case scenario this may cause a cartridge to overheat and detonate even when the trigger is not pulled, potentially leading to damage or causing the gun to cycle its action and keep firing until it has exhausted its ammunition supply or jammed; this is known as cooking off ( as distinct from runaway fire where the sear fails to re-engage when the trigger is released). Early Small Arms The first small arms came into general use at the end of the 14th cent. Machine gun, automatic weapon of small caliber that is capable of sustained rapid fire. In addition to that, they are in the nature of the design spun at very high speed during rapid fire, which has the benefit of producing enhanced air-cooling as a side-effect. Noun. Machine guns usually have simple iron sights, though the use of optics is becoming more common. Another early revolving gun was created by James Puckle, a London lawyer, who patented what he called "The Puckle Gun" on May 15, 1718. Many were sold to other armies in the late 19th century and continued to be used into the early 20th century, until they were gradually supplanted by Maxim guns. As a class of military kinetic projectile weapon, machine guns are designed to be mainly used as infantry support weapons and generally used when attached to a bipod or tripod, a fixed mount or a heavy weapons platform for stability against recoil. English Language Learners Definition of machine gun (Entry 2 of 2), See the full definition for machine gun in the English Language Learners Dictionary, Thesaurus: All synonyms and antonyms for machine-gun, Nglish: Translation of machine-gun for Spanish Speakers. The continuous nature of the rotary action, and its relative immunity to overheating allow for an incredibly high cyclic rate of fire, often several thousand rounds per minute. The model described is small in scale and works by rotating a series of barrels vertically so that it is feeding at the top from a 'tube' or hopper and could be discharged immediately at any elevation after having received a charge, according to the author. Submachine guns (e.g., the German MP 18) as well as lighter machine guns (the first light machine gun deployed in any significant number being the Madsen machine gun, with the Chauchat and Lewis gun soon following) saw their first major use in World War I, along with heavy use of large-caliber machine guns. Depending on size, weight and role, machine guns are divided into heavy, medium and light machine guns. Meaning of machine-gun. The English and Russian governments showed interest but the former refused to pay Steuble, who later sued them for this transgression, and the latter tried to imprison him. A Chain gun is a specific, patented type of Revolver cannon, the name in this case deriving from its driving mechanism. Some modern vehicle machine guns used linkless feed systems however. During the Vietnam War, Carlos Hathcock set the record for a long-distance shot at 7,382 ft (2,250 m) with a .50 caliber heavy machine gun he had equipped with a telescopic sight. Proper usage and audio pronunciation (plus IPA phonetic transcription) of the word machine gun. Many machine guns are of the locked breech type, and follow this cycle: The operation is basically the same for all locked breech automatic firearms, regardless of the means of activating these mechanisms. The Russian PK machine gun is an example. Conversely, with an automatic rifle, there’s an option for semi-automatic fire when full-auto is … Rotary guns are less prone to jamming than a gun operated by gas or recoil, as the external power source will eject misfired rounds with no further trouble, but this is not possible in the rare cases of self-powered rotary guns. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? New designs largely abandoned water jacket cooling systems as both undesirable, due to a greater emphasis on mobile tactics and unnecessary, thanks to the alternative and superior technique of preventing overheating by swapping barrels.  However, it was a commercial failure and was not adopted or produced in any meaningful quantity. as modifier ‘machine-gun fire’. Some machine guns have in practice sustained fire almost continuously for hours; other automatic weapons overheat after less than a minute of use. This weapon was a cannon that fed from a type of open-ended tubular magazine, only using rollers and an endless chain in place of springs.. , The first practical self-powered machine gun was invented in 1884 by Sir Hiram Maxim. Machine guns are controlled by one or more mechanical sears. Another is a revolving arquebus, produced by Hans Stopler of Nuremberg in 1597.. A general-purpose machine gun is usually a lightweight medium machine gun that can either be used with a bipod and drum in the light machine gun role or a tripod and belt feed in the medium machine gun role. Alternative spelling of machine gun; Verb . " This definition excludes most early manually operated repeating arms such as volley guns and the Gatling gun. 26 U.S.C. Releasing the trigger resets the trigger mechanism by engaging a sear so the weapon stops firing with bolt carrier fully at the rear. Many machine guns also use belt feeding and open bolt operation, features not normally found on other infantry repeating firearms. Define machine gun. b. , In 1852 a rotary cannon using a unique form of wheellock ignition was demonstrated by an Irish immigrant to America by the name of Delany. Information and translations of machine-gun in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. , In 1864 in the aftermath of the Second Schleswig War Denmark started a program intended to develop a gun that used the recoil of a fired shot to reload the firearm though a working model wouldn't be produced until 1888. The Agar Gun, otherwise known as a "coffee-mill gun" because of its resemblance to a coffee mill, was invented by Wilson Agar at the beginning of the US Civil War. On ships, vehicles and aircraft machine guns are usually mounted on a pintle mount – basically a steel post that is connected to the frame or body. There are also multi-chambered formats, such as revolver cannon, and some types, such as the Schwarzlose machine gun etc., that do not lock the breech but instead use some type of delayed blowback. Another fundamental development occurring before and during the war was the incorporation by gun designers of machine gun auto-loading mechanisms into handguns, giving rise to semi-automatic pistols such as the Borchardt (1890s), automatic machine pistols and later submachine guns (such as the Beretta 1918). Which of the following words shares a root with. The original Gatling Gun is a rapid-firing, hand-operated weapon. Pepperbox pistols also did away with needing multiple hammers but used multiple manually operated barrels. Immediately this raised a fundamental problem. Submachine gun definition is - a portable automatic firearm that uses pistol-type ammunition and is fired from the shoulder or hip. Cycle is repeated as long as the trigger is activated by operator. Many heavy machine guns, such as the Browning M2 .50 caliber machine gun, are accurate enough to engage targets at great distances. In the late 20th century, scopes and other complex optics became more common as opposed to the more basic iron sights. Most ordinary Americans can't tell the f*cking difference between a real machine gun and a semiautomatic … You can either have the weapon on safe or fully automatic. One is a shoulder-gun-length weapon made in Nuremberg, Germany, circa 1580. Almost any gun is based on one simple concept: You apply explosive pressure behind a projectile to launch it down a barrel.  The large wheels required to move these guns around required a high firing position, which increased the vulnerability of their crews. The design's key features were machine loading of prepared cartridges and a hand-operated crank for sequential high-speed firing. machine gun-- (a rapidly firing automatic gun (often mounted)) => automatic firearm, automatic gun, automatic weapon-- (a firearm that reloads itself and keeps firing until the trigger is released) Synonyms/Hypernyms (Ordered by Estimated Frequency) of verb machine_gun , In France and Britain, a mechanically operated machine gun was patented in 1856 by the Frenchman Francois Julien. Machine guns are absolutely designed for automatic fire, but here’s the thing: most machine guns only have that option. Some machine guns have in practice maintai… Volley guns (such as the Mitrailleuse) and double-barreled pistols relied on duplicating all parts of the gun, though the Nock gun used the otherwise-undesirable "chain fire" phenomenon (where multiple chambers are ignited at once) to propagate a spark from a single flintlock mechanism to multiple barrels. What does machine gun mean? verb. any of six or more elementary mechanisms, as the lever, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and inclined plane. n. A gun that fires rapidly and continuously as long as the trigger is held back. Aircraft-mounted machine guns were first used in combat in World War I. Heavy guns based on the Maxim such as the Vickers machine gun were joined by many other machine weapons, which mostly had their start in the early 20th century such as the Hotchkiss machine gun. noun. Armour could of course be provided, and in WW I the Germans in particular often did this; but this added yet more weight to the guns. Alternative spelling of machine-gun. The resulting design, the M60 machine gun, was issued to troops during the Vietnam War. They also usually have either a barrel cooling system, slow-heating heavyweight barrel, or removable barrels which allow a hot barrel to be replaced. Information about machine gun in the AudioEnglish.org dictionary, … The machine gun was developed in the late 19th century and has profoundly altered the character of modern warfare. However, these were still manually operated. True repeating long arms were difficult to manufacture prior to the development of the unitary firearm cartridge; nevertheless, lever-action repeating rifles such as the Kalthoff repeater and Cookson repeater were made in small quantities in the 17th century. Almost all machine guns have a "safety" sear, which simply keeps the trigger from engaging. 16880. Most modern machine guns are of the locking type, and of these, most utilize the principle of gas-operated reloading, which taps off some of the propellant gas from the fired cartridge, using its mechanical pressure to unlock the bolt and cycle the action. A machine gun. If a gun-toting character pulls the trigger and holds it there while the business end goes bang-bang-bang, then there's an excellent chance that firearm is a submachine gun or a machine gun (warning: does not apply to characters requesting someone pull their fingers). Belts were either held in the open by the person, or in a bag or box. , In 1847 a short description of a prototype electrically-ignited mechanical machine gun was published in Scientific American by a J.R. Nichols. 482. Nowadays the term is restricted to relatively heavy crew-served weapons, able to provide continuous or frequent bursts of automatic fire for as long as ammunition feeding is replete. Definition of machine gun written for English Language Learners from the Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary with audio pronunciations, usage examples, and count/noncount noun labels. Original patent claim reproduced in: Francis Bannerman Sons, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The History of the Royal Society of London for Improving of Natural Knowledge, from Its First Rise: In which the Most Considerable of Those Papers Communicated to the Society, which Have Hitherto Not Been Published, are Inserted in Their Proper Order, as a Supplement to the Philosophical Transactions", "The Armoury of His Grace the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry", "Foglio ufficiale. “Machine-gun.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/machine-gun. § 5845(b) For the purposes of the National Firearms Act the term Machinegun means: English  Etymology . Also called simple machine. Definition of machine-gun_1 noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. .30 Cal Military 22 Long Rifle AK47, Valmet, Galil All Transferable Machine Guns Belt Guns C&R Colt M16 and Similar H&K Incoming M10 .45 ACP M10 9mm M10, M11, Uzi, Sten, Sterling, and Smith & Wesson 76 M11 .380 ACP M11 9mm Other Post-May Sales Sample Pre-May Sales Sample Smith & Wesson 76 Sten Sterling Thompson Uzi Perhaps the earliest examples of predecessors to the modern machine gun are to be found in East Asia. A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire bullets in quick succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute. To guard against cook-offs occurring, some kind of cooling system or design element is required. (32 mm) caliber, flintlock cannon with a revolver cylinder able to fire 6–11 rounds before reloading by swapping out the cylinder, intended for use on ships. Because they become very hot, the great majority of designs fire from an open bolt, to permit air cooling from the breech between bursts. These weapons were still powered by hand; however, this changed with Hiram Maxim's idea of harnessing recoil energy to power reloading in his Maxim machine gun. The French government showed interest at first and while they noted that mechanically there was nothing wrong with Steuble's invention they turned him down, stating that the machine both lacked novelty and could not be usefully employed by the army. The action is very similar to that of the revolver pistols common in the 19th and 20th centuries, giving this type of weapon its name. an automatic gun that can fire a lot of bullets one after the other very quickly: [ before noun ] Several reporters were caught in machine-gun fire. 55-528, 1955-2 C.B. A cam, lever or actuator absorbs part of the energy of the recoil to operate the gun mechanism. The Maxim machine gun used the recoil power of the previously fired bullet to reload rather than being hand-powered, enabling a much higher rate of fire than was possible using earlier designs such as the Nordenfelt and Gatling weapons. Modern weapons of this type are often referred to as Gatling guns, after the original inventor (not only of the well-known hand-cranked 19th century proto-machine gun, but also of the first electrically-powered version). Sustained fully-automatic firearm used for suppressive fire, This article is about heavy firearms used for suppressive fire. Tripod and pintle mounts are usually used with spade grips. The Allies had no equivalent system until 1916 and their aircraft suffered badly as a result, a period known as the Fokker Scourge, after the Fokker Eindecker, the first German plane to incorporate the new technology. machine-gunner n. Advances in metallurgy and use of special composites in barrel liners have allowed for greater heat absorption and dissipation during firing. skyde med maskingevær; meje ned med maskingevær. On earlier manual machine guns, the most common type was a hand crank. While this machine gun was equally able in the light and medium roles, it proved difficult to manufacture in quantity, and experts on industrial metalworking were called in to redesign the weapon for modern tooling, creating the MG 42. machine gun definition in English dictionary, machine gun meaning, synonyms, see also 'Browning machine gun',machine',adding machine',answering machine'. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary sub-machine-gun - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. As better materials became available following the First World War, light machine guns became more readily portable; designs such as the Bren light machine gun replaced bulky predecessors like the Lewis gun in the squad support weapon role, while the modern division between medium machine guns like the M1919 Browning machine gun and heavy machine guns like the Browning M2 became clearer. Machinery.-v.2. Machine guns are generally categorized as submachine guns, machine guns, or … Rotary designs are intrinsically comparatively bulky and expensive, and are therefore generally used with large rounds, 20 mm in diameter or more, often referred to as Rotary cannon – though the rifle-calibre Minigun is an exception to this. Unlike other mechanically operated machine guns of the era, this weapon didn't use any form of self-contained cartridge, with firing being carried out by separate percussion caps. They have several barrels each with an associated chamber and action on a rotating carousel and a system of cams that load, cock, and fire each mechanism progressively as it rotates through the sequence; essentially each barrel is a separate bolt-action rifle using a common feed source. Medium machine guns use full-sized rifle rounds and are designed to be used from fixed positions mounted on a tripod. Other automatic weapons are subdivided into several categories based on the size of the bullet used, whether the cartridge is fired from a closed bolt or an open bolt, and whether the action used is locked or is some form of blowback. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Other automatic firearms such as assault rifles and automatic rifles are designed more for unleashing short bursts than for continuous fire, and are not considered machine guns.  Sustained firing of gunpowder cartridges generated a cloud of smoke, making concealment impossible until smokeless powder became available in the late 19th century. This weapon used multiple barrels arranged side by side, fed by a revolving cylinder that was in turn fed by hoppers, similar to the system used by Nichols. The key characteristic of modern machine guns, their relatively high rate of fire and more importantly mechanical loading, first appeared in the Model 1862 Gatling gun, which was adopted by the United States Navy. To understand how machine guns work, it helps to know something about firearms in general. Although it was used effectively at times, mechanical difficulties hindered its operation and it was ultimately abandoned shortly after the war ended (de). Adopted, and simplest, application of this second kind and translations of machine-gun in the '... By Henry Clarke held back root with ] However, it effectively stops the bolt at some point in range! 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