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Plant Cell Rep. 2009;28:527–537. doi: 10.1038/nature12878. Rev. 2019 Nov;10(6):e1556.  |  GAs trigger the degradation of SLR1, leading to stem elongation and also to the degradation of MOC1, and hence a decrease in tiller number. Despite their differences in bud initiation time, the main shoot and all tillers grow to a uniform height and flower at the same time [1]. increasing japonica rice tiller number is urgent for breed-ing programs to produce japonica cultivars with high yield and good grain quality. Blue circles suggested nitrate, and…, NLM The hierarchy in tiller development becomes evident as grain yield becomes poorer in each successive tiller [ 20 , 21 ]. However, comprehensive analyses of the genetic basis of the tiller number, considering the development stage, tiller type, and related traits, are lacking. The breeding of cereals with altered gibberellin (GA) signaling propelled the 'Green Revolution' by generating semidwarf plants with increased tiller number. The tiller develops from an axillary bud which dif­ ferentiated on an axil of a leaf of rice plants. In direct-seeded rice fields with a normal plant population (10 to 20 plants per square foot), rice plants generally produce 2 to 5 panicle bearing tillers per plant compared to 10 to 30 tillers per plant in transplanted rice where more space is available between plants. The tillering capacity of rice plants varies with variety, plant spacing, fertility, weed competition and damage from pests. Excessive tillering can lead to reduced grain yield because the tillers compete for resources with the main shoot and in turn impair fertility. -, Zhou F, et al. a Protein levels of…, NLM Since elevated expression of OsNPF7.2 is capable of improving rice grain yield, this gene might be applied to high-yield rice breeding. doi: 10.1038/nature12870. eCollection 2020. Sci. These tillers are called secondary tillers. J Exp Bot. They are involved in vegetative propagation and, in some cases, also seed production. Genes involved in nitrogen use efficiency processes have been identified in the previous studies, however, only a small number of these genes have been found to improve grain yield by promoting tillering. Tiller number and plant height are coordinated inversely by GA. a Appearance of…, GA signaling inhibits tiller bud outgrowth and the protein level of MOC1. Therefore, the information on productive tiller number is very important. The levels of gene transcripts related to cytokinin pathway and cell cycle in tiller bud, and cytokinins concentration in tiller basal portion were higher in OX lines than that in WT, suggesting that altered expression of OsNPF7.2 controlled tiller bud growth and root development by regulating cytokinins content and cell cycle in plant cells. 31301250/National Natural Science Foundation of China, 31701990/National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN), 2016YFD01007/National Key Research and Development Program, 160203/the open project of State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, 2015M582243/Chinese Postdoctoral Science Foundation, B2017293/the Scientific research projects of Hubei Education Department, 2017CFB696/Hubei Natural Science Foundation, Arite T, Iwata H, Ohshima K, Maekawa M, Nakajima M, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Kyozuka J. DWARF10, an RMS1/MAX4/DAD1 ortholog, controls lateral bud outgrowth in rice. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Expression of genes involved in strigolactone biosynthesis, perception and signalling pathway. 2020 Aug 5;20(1):369. doi: 10.1186/s12870-020-02582-2. 2020 Jul 31;9(8):970. doi: 10.3390/plants9080970. 11, 1804685. Nature. Tiller number is an important agronomic trait that plays a role in rice yield by influencing the number of panicles per plant [1]. Front Genet. (2020). 2007;51:1019–1029. The authors declare no competing interests. Under different nitrate concentrations, tiller buds grew faster in OX lines than in WT, but they grew slower in Ri lines and mutant osnpf7.2. NIH Wang D, Xu T, Yin Z, Wu W, Geng H, Li L, Yang M, Cai H, Lian X. -. Plant Cell. NIH Tillers originate on culm nodes in an acropetal succession. A mature rice plant has a main shoot and several lateral branches (tillers), with each bearing an inflorescence (panicle) at the apex. Annu. For a long time, desirable plant architecture which focused on tiller number has been the main goal for breeders to breed rice varieties with high-yield potential. Partial amino acid concentrations influence bud outgrowth and tiller number in rice through the amino acid transporter OsAAP3. -, Arite T, Umehara M, Ishikawa S, Hanada A, Maekawa M, Yamaguchi S, Kyozuka J. D14, a strigolactone-insensitive mutant of rice, shows an accelerated outgrowth of tillers. 2013 Mar;140(6):1147-51. doi: 10.1242/dev.087650. 15, No. Transcriptomic and physiological analyses of rice seedlings under different nitrogen supplies provide insight into the regulation involved in axillary bud outgrowth. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. 2011;772:279–295. 2020 Jun 8;13(1):35. doi: 10.1186/s12284-020-00395-3. Number of tillers per plant depends on the differentiation of axillary buds (referred to as tiller buds hereafter) at leaf axils and the succeeding development of the tiller buds. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! 2017 Aug 2;8:1338. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01338. Here we show that rice tiller number regulator MONOCULM 1 (MOC1) is protected from degradation by binding to the DELLA protein SLENDER RICE 1 (SLR1). Rice GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR 7 controls tiller number by regulating strigolactone synthesis. Genes’ expression involved in SL biosynthesis (. eCollection 2017. 1999;400:256–261. -, Peng JR, et al. We constructed over-expression (OX) lines and RNA-interference (Ri) lines, and selected a mutant of OsNPF7.2, a low-affinity nitrate transporter. Further advantages, including increased tiller number and grain yield, were observed in overexpression lines grown in the paddy field at a low‐nitrogen rate compared with at a high‐nitrogen rate. A tiller number is the key determinant of rice plant architecture and panicle number and consequently controls grain yield. OsNPF7.2 OX lines showed more significantly enhanced influx of nitrate and had a higher nitrate concentration than WT. In direct-seeded rice fields with a normal plant population (10 to 20 plants per square foot), rice plants generally produce two to five panicle-bearing tillers per plant compared to 10 to 30 tillers per plant in transplanted rice where more space is available between plants. 2020 Nov;20(6):787-799. doi: 10.1007/s10142-020-00752-x. 2020 Nov 12;11:586462. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2020.586462. Our discovery highlights the genetic modulation of OsNLP4‐OsNiR signalling cascade as a strategy for high NUE and yield breeding in rice. Early‐emerging tillers possess higher C/N ratio in straw than late‐emerging tillers. 2013;504:406–410. Background: Altered expression of OsNPF7.1 and OsNPF7.4 differentially regulates tillering and grain yield in rice. 2019 Jun;283:23-31. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2019.01.019. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2020 Jul 25;71(15):4531-4546. doi: 10.1093/jxb/eraa210. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Epub 2008 Sep 30. Characterization of transgenic lines of OsNPF7.2 . Genes’ expression…, The proposed model of OsNPF7.2 regulating rice tillering. Rice tiller number is one of the most important factors that determine grain yield, while nitrogen is essential for the crop growth and development, especially for tiller formation. Tillers are segmented, each segment possessing its own two-part leaf. Epub 2019 Mar 24. 23 Tiller Number Hill : Rice varieties showed significantly levels were P = Control (Without phosphorus), P = 24 Kg differences for tiller production which ranged between 01 P O ha 2 5 2,P = 48 Kg P O ha 25 3 ,P = 72 Kg P O ha 25 and 4.60 and 20.51 (Table 1). SAPK2 contributes to rice yield by modulating nitrogen metabolic processes under reproductive stage drought stress. To increase levels of free IAA, we treated rice plants with three different concentrations of exogenous IAA (1 μM, 10 μM and 100 μM) twice a week by spraying. doi: 10.1007/s00299-008-0665-z. Phenotypes of the Rice Tillering Dwarf Mutant d27. Tiller number and plant height are coordinated inversely by GA. GA signaling inhibits tiller bud outgrowth and the protein level of MOC1. Nature. This discovery provides a molecular explanation for the coordinated control of plant height and tiller number in rice by GAs, SLR1 and MOC1. Huang W, Nie H, Feng F, Wang J, Lu K, Fang Z. MicroRNAs meet with quantitative trait loci: Small powerful players in regulating quantitative yield traits in rice. Morphological and histological observations revealed that, in the ts1 plants, the tiller buds were abnormally formed and therefore cannot outgrow into tillers. J Exp Bot. 2009;50:1416–1424. The amino acid transporter AAP1 mediates growth and grain yield by regulating neutral amino acid uptake and reallocation in Oryza sativa. In this review entitled Molecular mechanisms underlying plant architecture and its environmental plasticity in rice, Gao et al. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-042817-040422. SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) proteins are plant-specific transcription factors containing a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called an SBP-box (Yamasaki et al. Plant Cell Physiol. These results indicated that altered expression of OsNPF7.2 plays a significant role in the control of tiller bud growth and regulation of tillering. A famous example was the “New Plant Type” rice varieties with low tiller number and large panicles, which were developed by the International Rice Research Institute [3]. Plant Mol Biol. ‘Green revolution’ genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Altered expression of OsNPF7.2 regulated CKs concentration and cell cycle. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! -. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. In a recent study published in AoB PLANTS, Wang et al. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. 2018 Mar 8;9:300. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00300. Early‐emerging tillers pre‐empt the uppermost light source and shade the late‐emerging tillers. Comparative transcriptome analyses reveal different mechanism of high- and low-tillering genotypes controlling tiller growth in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.). The mechanism by which GAs promote shoot height has been studied extensively, but it is not known what causes the inverse relationship between plant height and tiller number. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. found that nitrogen fertilizer application increased the number of rice tillers, but not every tiller contributed equally to the overall yield. HHS doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-228-1_17. Deveshwar P, Prusty A, Sharma S, Tyagi AK. However, reduced expression of OsNPF7.2 had the opposite result on these characters. Small grain and semi-dwarf 3, a WRKY transcription factor, negatively regulates plant height and grain size by stabilizing SLR1 expression in rice. Wu Z, Tang D, Liu K, Miao C, Zhuo X, Li Y, Tan X, Sun M, Luo Q, Cheng Z. J Exp Bot. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Rice is one of the three major crop species that provide food for more than half of the global population. Epub 2019 Feb 26. SPL genes are wid… HHS Huang W, Bai G, Wang J, Zhu W, Zeng Q, Lu K, Sun S, Fang Z. 2003; Xing and Zhang 2010). Rice (N Y). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03210.x. Lan J, Lin Q, Zhou C, Ren Y, Liu X, Miao R, Jing R, Mou C, Nguyen T, Zhu X, Wang Q, Zhang X, Guo X, Liu S, Jiang L, Wan J. Methods Mol Biol. -, Chen Z, Yamaji N, Horie T, Che J, Li J, An G, Ma J. However, comprehensive analyses of the genetic basis of the tiller number, considering the development stage, tiller type, and related traits, are lacking. Our data revealed that ammonium supply and an auxin efflux transporter co‐ordinately control tiller bud elongation in rice. The Rice Circadian Clock Regulates Tiller Growth and Panicle Development Through Strigolactone Signaling and Sugar Sensing. D14–SCFD3-dependent degradation of D53 regulates strigolactone signalling. Productive tiller number of a rice plant is highly correlated to the number of effective panicles of the plant (Chen et al., 2015) which is viewed as essential information for genetic improvement of rice yields (Cox and Smith, 2019, Kang et al., 2019, Luo et al., 2019). National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Tiller number increased sharply 11 1 P = 96 Kg P O ha 4 25. Histological, Physiological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveal Gibberellin-Induced Axillary Meristem Formation in Garlic (, 31788103/National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China)/International, 91635301/National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China)/International, Wang B, Smith SM, Li J. To reduced grain yield becomes poorer in each analysis for each plot just before rice tiller number the crop the mutant. Showed more significantly enhanced influx of nitrate and had a higher nitrate concentration than WT with... Above the error bars are ranked by Duncan’s multiple range test Q, Ye,! 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