why did germany colonize africa

[37] As the Germans became more determined to take Herero land for Lebensraum, the Herero edged closer to open rebellion and killed a number of Germans as a result of this treatment. [15] The ‘cotton gospel’ was received less enthusiastically in Tanganyika than it was in British Uganda. However, in order to accomplish these advancements, they needed a source of constant raw material supply. Before it reached that point, the Germans started off slow in Namibia, from a position of relative weakness. [31] A British writer, Albert E Calvert, tried to understand this distinct difference; Calvert argued that the natives of Togoland ended their ‘allegiance’ with the Germans as soon as the Germans were put in a position of pressure, that the terrible treatment they endured under the Germans was the reason for their welcoming of the British and French invasion as well as the joy they exerted after the German surrender. While most German citizens do know that Germany had colonies in Africa, the majority does not know much more than that. The key to the initial German interest in Kamerun was German businessmen's desire for trade. Much like the adventurers who had traveled to Asia and North America, many European explorers set out to determine the physical makeup of the African continent. However, the map shows Namibia. When Germany invades Belgium, at the start of World War I, the Belgians retaliate in a smaller way in central Africa. The Germans offered political and military support for their allies in exchange for the recognition of German authority, provision of labor and building materials, and the use of diplomacy instead of force in settling issues. The Allies rejected the proposals because the native inhabitants of the German colonies were strongly opposed to being brought under their control again. In German East Africa this was much harder to pursue as agriculture was less developed, and farmers sometimes needed to be coerced into producing certain crops. [9] The German rule of East Africa was solely based on force and German officials inspired great terror. [32] Germans quickly responded, to defend their honor, by stating that the Africans were more than satisfied with German sovereignty, that they desired nothing more than its continuance. By 1900 a significant part of Africa had been colonized by mainly seven European powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. [42] Great Britain and France had made secret arrangements splitting German territory and the Treaty of Versailles only cemented what had already taken place. European nations saw opportunity for new trade routes and potential wealth in some of Africa's natural resources. Gol(raw materials), Glory(more land ment more power), and God(convert people to Christianity) ... France, Portugal, Germany and Belgium. The idea of separating people out from typical society and killing them as quick as possibly was probably born on Shark Island. [17] However, this was quickly discovered to be inefficient as many of these firms went bankrupt because of mismanagement and African resistance. [33] Some Germans also argued that the colonial territories which blossomed under their rule were economically ruined after they were expunged. [4] Resistance was seen all over German controlled Africa, but the German soldiers and officers came from the best army in the world, so the action of rebelling didn’t have much of a long-term impact. Throughout the colonial period, the societies that had been established in Africa fought hard to fend off their European colonizers. [21]  For a period of time, after the Germans declared Kamerun a protectorate, they only had a solidified position on the coast; the Germans had not been successful in opening trade routes in the interior, partly for geographical reasons. In 1876 he commissioned Sir Henry Morton Stanley’s expedition to explore the Congo region. Resisting made the percentage of survival much less for Africans and brutality became synonymous with German imperialism in Africa. Germany did, in 1885. European powers noticed that many of these raw materials happened to be abundant in Africa. Define direct rule. The population of Rwanda is primarily made up of two ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu. [35] The Germans realized that Namibia would be perfect for this, and ethnic cleansing was necessary to create the Lebensraum. Unlike e.g. A large motivator behind African colonization was the desire to spread Christianity throughout the world. When Hitler formally renounced "colonies" in 1935, he meant "overseas" colonies, not the "close to home" variety in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Both were a major source of unrest everywhere, and have been identified as a chief cause of the uprising in East Africa. Orders from the capital may have taken months to reach remote districts and a remote station could expect a visit from a senior official only once a decade. It was a mixture of nationalism, militarism, and racism that prompted Kaiser Wilhelm II to send a large army to crush the Herero. German South West Africa, German Deutsch-Südwestafrika, a former German colony (1884–1919) that is now the nation of Namibia, in southwestern Africa.In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena, which he renamed Lüderitzbucht.He also acquired the adjacent coastal area, which he named Lüderitzland. Why did Europeans want to colonize Africa. They were invaded and largely occupied by the colonial forces of the Allied Powers during World War I, and in 1919 were transferred from German control by the League of Nations and divided between Belgium, France, Portugal, South Africa and the United Kingdom. South Africa, which was a British colony, occupied Walvis Bay in 1878, and the rest of Namibia in 1915. Five years later, a treaty with the king of Arguin in Mauritania established a protectorate over that island, and Brandenburg occupied an abandoned fort originally constructed there by Portugal. After the conquest of African decentralized and centralized states, the European powers set about establishing colonial state systems. According to Jean-Marie Kamatali, Ubuhake, a social system in which the Hutus worked in the service of Tutsis in exchange for cattle, characterized relations between the two peoples. The extent of the forest prevented the coastal groups from uniting with the Grassfields peoples to stem the German tide. The fact that many countries in Africa still experience high levels of poverty today, often despite the country’s natural riches, is used as proof by many that the colonialization of Africa did more harm than good. Answer Save. [30] The Togolanders were beyond thankful to be freed from German rule, this conflicted with the previously-held contention among many European imperialists that Togoland was a model colony. The Congo was under King Leopold II’s rule (eventually Belgian) and Senegal, Cameroon, and several other colonies in the western Sudan and Central Africa were gained by France. These were colonies unsuccessfully settled by Brandenburg-Prussia (part of the Holy Roman Empire realm), after 1701 Kingdom of Prussia, before the foundation of the German Empire in 1871.. Africa. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Belgium, Italy, and Portugal. [11] Moreover, the imposition of tax in 1898 initiated the transition to the second phase of administration whose chief characteristic was the collapse of the compromises made earlier in the decade. [13] However, this was not what happened in other scenarios. The Germans attacked the Herero where they were mainly gathered, right next to the Kalahari Desert. To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. Eventually, when the Germans believed the time was right to assert more control, they began disputing the Herero claims over land. Soon after the agreement to create an East African colony was reached, the German Kaiser granted imperial protection to the possessions of the German East African Company, which had autonomy in the region. why did Germany colonize Rwanda? To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. The exploitative nature of the German regime swept the natives of Kamerun into a changed world. The Portuguese colonised both Mozambique and Angola, in southern Africa, whilst South-western Africa, along with Tanganyika in East Africa were under German rule. [19] A slow and cautious interest in Kamerun had been growing among German businessmen for thirty years before the finalization of Kamerun as a protectorate. A key ideology behind imperialism, which in turn informs colonialism, is the idea of racial superiority or cultural superiority. This activity led to the depopulation of inland zones. Ubahake, not unlike European feudalism, led to a class-dominated system instilling the Tutsis as a privileged minority and Hutus as the working clas… The Germans forced many Herero into a war they did not want. Suddenly, the barter economy was replaced by a money economy.[27]. Following World War II, the League of Nations was dissolved in … [20] The Germans hoped to exploit the natural resources of the region and provide their country with a new market for manufactured goods; Kamerun was never considered to be a settler colony, as the climate was too hostile. Prior to the wave of European colonization, the geography of Africa was generally misunderstood. German urban areas were overcrowded because of a recent population boom, the poor became people without space to operate in. The Germans were aided by the severe ethnic and political fragmentation of the inland groups. This lack of attention in schools implies that this is not an important period in German history. Yes, but the precise answer to this depends on how you define “Germany’ and also ‘colonize’. Germany decided to create a colony in East Africa under the leadership of Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck in February 1885. It is sparsely mentioned in history books. While Europeans and Africans had established relationships in a variety of settings for centuries, the 1880s mark a major turning point in European attitudes toward Africa. Never really deployed at forts, the troops were first grouped into three expeditionary companies, who were marched from place to place to suppress revolts. “Namibia: Genocide and the Second Reich (BBC).”, Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=German_colonization_of_Africa&oldid=1000276871, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 12:57. After diplomacy concluded and the conflicts resulted in German victory, their regime used bands of gunmen to maintain authority over local leaders. The Brandenburg African Company was chartered in 1682 and established two small settlements on the Gold Coast of what is today Ghana. Parts of contemporary Chad, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, the Central African Republic and the Republic of the Congo were also under the control of German Africa at various points during its existence. Moreover, Bismarck was suspect of France and Great Britain’s true intentions in Africa and this only furthered his desire to cr… The Colonization of Africa was due to a wide range of factors, not only economic and political but also for social, religious, humanitarian and technological reasons, which differed from country to country. The German consul, Gustav Nachtigal, declared Kamerun a protectorate of Germany on July 12, 1884. There were almost no free Herero people after the establishment of the concentration camps; slave labor became part of the colonial economy. [8] The chief characteristic of German rule was the power and autonomy of the district officer; sheer lack of communication dictated this. All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World. Yet Germany wanted an empire so they snapped up a few scraps just to spite the UK and France. Namibia, or South Western Africa has an area of 835,100 kilometers squared. By the … The German colony rented slaves to private companies, but some companies were so big that they ran their own concentration camps. What countries did Italy colonize in Africa? Prior to this time, world superpowers such as Portugal, France, and Britain had already set up colonies in Africa. Nevertheless, the German interest in the interior continued, heightened by favorable reports from travelers such as Heinrich Barth in the 1850's; Gerhard Rohlfs in the 1860’s; and Gustav Nachtigal, from 1869 to 1873. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, … While Togoland might have appeared to be "model" to Europeans, Togolanders endured a regime characterized by the aforementioned labor and taxation policies, harsh punishments inflicted by German district officers, grossly inadequate health care and education systems, and prohibition from many commercial activities. [25] The Germans used these troops to combat many revolts against their rule. Section three discusses Germany’s role in the European “scramble for Africa” and such developments as the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1884 and the 1884−85 Congress of Berlin. The main reason for this is the curriculum of the German educational system. Lv 7. Colonization became so popular during this period for many reasons. [26] As the Germans subdued rebellious Africans, their expeditions also resulted in obtaining forced laborers for the coastal plantations. Prior to colonization, Hutu peoples were typically farmers, while Tutsis were cattle herders. Africa’s diplomatic, strategic and material potential led European Powers to seize the opportunity to exploit a new continent. In some places throughout Africa, the colonial state only needed to provide seeds of encouragement as commercial agriculture was already well established. The prospect of a colony in East Africa was too much to ignore; it was perfect for the continued economic stability and growth of Germany. By European standards, Italy is a young country, having become unified as one nation only in 1861. To fix this problem members of the ‘surplus’ population were exported as colonists in Algeria, Tunisisa, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, Some saw Germany's behavior in South-West Africa as a precursor of German actions in the Holocaust. Not all Herero acted against the Germans originally and even expressed their continued loyalty. [7] By 1914, Tanganyika was divided into 22 administrative districts, and only two of them were still ruled by soldiers. In 1884, pursuant to the Berlin Conference, colonies were officially established on the African west coast, often in areas already inhabited by German missionaries and merchants. Social As a side effect of the Industrial Revolution unemployment, poverty, and homelessness had become prevalent throughout Europe. For example, Mtinginya of Usongo, a powerful Nyamwezi chief aided the Germans against Isike; but by 1901, he became a potential enemy and when he died a year or two later, his chiefdom was deliberately dismantled. [23] Once the protectorate was officially declared, the German military was purposely slow to enlist locals as soldiers lest they acquire too great a proficiency with guns and turn those guns on the whites. In the 1680s, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, then leading the broader realm of Brandenburg-Prussia, pursued limited imperial efforts in West Africa. Part of this feeling, among some Italians, included a desire to acquire overseas colonies—as other European countries wer… Belgian troops move east from the Belgian Congo to occupy (in 1916) Ruanda-Urundi. Britain, Germany didn't have enough of a navy to support overseas colonies, but had an army that was more than willing to annex adjacent territories. [12] The old compromises collapsed because the increase in German military strength made them less dependent on local allies and while earlier officers often welcomed their collaborators’ power, later ones suspected it. The district officer exercised full jurisdiction over ‘natives’, for although legislation specified the punishments he might impose, nothing defined the offences for which he might impose them. [22] After the German navy cemented their control over the Kamerun coast, and further troop landings were made, the Germans were more inclined to move inland. Many of the old African collaborators did not necessarily lose power in this second stage of German administration, but to survive they had to adapt themselves and often reorganize their societies.[14]. [40] However, this was a lie and the Herero that were rounded up were sent to concentration camps. By 1898, the Germans controlled all of Tanganyika’s main population centers and lines of communication. When the company’s agents landed to take over seven coastal towns in the August of 1888, the tension finally escalated into violence. Colonialism is the act by which a country or state exerts control and domination over another country or state. The African natives were shipped by cattle cars and taken to a place far from public view to be exterminated. Eventually, the main coastal towns, which were more settled, were converted into headquarters of administration districts, and civilian district officers were appointed. There were several different reasons why European colonizers set their sights on the African continent Some of the most prominent ones are outlined below: The 19th century was home to the industrial revolution, a time when many European nations were flourishing in the technology sector of the time. There were many reasons for the colonization of Africa, including economic, political, and religious motives. Probably the most important was economic as a depression was occurring in Europe. The formation of impressive rail networks and telegraph systems further supported this opinion. Most victims of the Shark Island camp were the Nama people; they saw the tragedy that the Herero went through and rebelled against the Germans because of that. However, from certain parts of southern Spain you can actually SEE Moroccan, north African land with your naked eye, yet the Spaniards never really tried to colonize that part of the world. As imperial Germany began creating an overseas empire in the late 19th century, many influential Germans sought to emulate the example of Great Britain, which had built its large and powerful empire in part by promoting the settlement of immigrants from the British Isles to British-controlled territories in other parts of the world, including East Africa and South Africa. Effect of colonialism turned extreme and believed ethnic cleansing was necessary of affairs, granting Belgium in a! Which a country or state exerts control and domination over another country or state domination over another country or.. 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